Ethnic considerations for the facial aesthetic uses of botulinum toxin: an Asian perspective


KEY WORDS: anatomy, botulinum toxin; ethnicity

There are several consensus guidelines, mostly based on the Caucasian experiences, for facial aesthetic uses of botulinum toxin type A. For Asians, only a few articles on the same subject have been published. This article is aimed to review the ethnic differences in facial anatomy which are relevant to botulinum toxin injection for facial aesthetics. Literature review of the anatomic diversities of the muscles of the forehead, glabellar, and periorbital areas is provided. Ethnic differences in the facial expression patterns are also discussed.